The success of solid phase custom peptide synthesis utilizing 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) amino acids is often limited by deleterious side reactions which occur during TFA peptide-resin cleavage and side-chain deprotection. The majority of these side reactions modify susceptible residues, such as Trp, Tyr, Met, and Cys, with TFA-liberated side-chain protecting groups and linkers. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of various scavengers in suppressing these side reactions. We found that the cleavage mixture 82.5% TFA: 5% phenol: 5% H2O : 5% thioanisole : 2.5% EDT (Reagent K) was maximally efficient in inhibiting a great variety of side reactions. Synthesis and cleavage of 10 peptides, each containing 20-50 residues, demonstrated the complementarity of Fmoc chemistry with Reagent K for efficient synthesis of complex peptides.
Female Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during scotophase, and this production is stimulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuro custom peptide synthesis, presumably carried in the hemolymph. Several lines of evidence indicate that the central nervous system plays another critical role in this regulation. Pheromone biosynthesis was induced during photophase by electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord or the peripheral nerves projecting from the terminal abdominal ganglion to the pheromone gland in the tip of the abdomen.
Electron microscopy further revealed that axonal branches innervate the gland tissue. Nerve branches associated with pheromone gland cells are enwrapped in glia and contain dense-core vesicles, suggesting that the innervation of the gland might be neurosecretory. Finally, the biogenic monoamine octopamine was nearly as effective as purified Heliothis zea PBAN in stimulating pheromone biosynthesis when injected into intact females during mid-photophase. Furthermore, both octopamine and PBAN stimulated significant increases in the pheromone content of the glands in isolated abdomens lacking a ventral nerve cord but only when abdomens were treated at the onset of scotophase. These data suggest that the regulation of sex pheromone production in Heliothis is more complex than previously thought. Activation of the gland appears to be governed by both neural and hormonal mechanisms, and these control mechanisms depend on photoperiodic cues.